Author: Celso CANCELA, Paula LAMOSO
Abstract: The EU is currently embedded in a new enlargement process, this time towards the Western Balkans; a particular relevant geopolitical area for the EU. Among the Western Balkans EU membership candidates Serbia occupies a privileged position due to its territorial size, population and economic ties with the EU. Nevertheless, Serbia’s relationship with the EU is complex as a result of the regional conflicts that took place during the 1990s and, currently, due to the authoritarian character that it is steadily adopting. Bearing in mind the Serbia’s commitment to EU membership, our main purpose throughout this piece is to carefully look at Serbia in order to assess the options and challenges that it has to be an EU member state; particularly after the EU Commission reformed the EU Enlargement Process to be more political. Two major obstacles that Serbia faces in its accession process to the EU are highlighted: a weak democracy and the lack of rule of law. Despite the internal challenges that the EU is facing, both the European Commission and Germany, are clearly engaged with the Western Balkans enlargement process, mainly because of geopolitical reasons. Therefore, it is an opportunity that all of them, and particularly Serbia, should not miss.
Keywords: Enlargement, Western Balkans, Serbia, Kosovo, European Commission.
JEL Code: F15, N40, O19
Pages: 4-34 | Full text (PDF)
Authors: Corneliu MUNTEANU
Abstract: The so called „captured states” are the countries with oligarchic control of political power. This term is used frequently to describe the Eastern Partnership countries – Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. That inevitably puts pressure on the resilience of these three countries, in addition to Russia’s aggressive campaigns, carried out with or without the use of conventional weaponry. We underline several aspects of the „hybrid war” waged by Russia against Eastern Partnership countries, which includes instruments of pressure in bilateral trade, media and security sectors (through the refusal to pull out the Russian troops from the illegally occupied regions). This paper looks at the EU’s messages that are being forged by different actors internally and by Russian propaganda externally. It provides a range of arguments supporting the idea that the Eastern Partnership countries receive forged messages and the consequences are quite big – mainly for the European prospective of these countries.
Keywords: disinformation, propaganda, sovereignty, risks, pluralistic environment.
JEL Code: D83, D72, D 73
Pages: 35-47 | Full text (PDF)
Author: Olesea PLOTNIC
Abstract: The balance of the consumer contract concerns more the notion of cause of the obligation, since the contractual balance supposes an analysis of the counterparties. Jurisprudence and doctrine have sometimes used this concept to remedy imbalances, in particular by carrying out a more global analysis of the content of the contract. Common law has its own rules for rebalancing the contract, and in particular the theory of vices of consent. The interest of this article is to show if the rules of common law can be used to balance the consumer contract and to what extent they are to fight against contractual unfair terms in consumer contracts.
Keywords: consummer, consent vices, rules, balance, contract, unfair terms.
JEL Code: P 37(P 48), L 84
Pages: 48-61 | Full text (PDF)
Author: Rafael CILOCI
Abstract: The Entrepreneurship is a determining factor for sustainable development for every national economy and Youth Entrepreneurship is especially important being most creative, risk taking and innovative. Youth, because of different education and specific features, are less conformist and more critical thinking oriented. They provide new ideas and solutions on the market, perspectives for better adjustment to challenges and opportunities. Purpose of research is to examine the perception of youth about what prevent starting a business in the R. of Moldova, Ukraine and Latvia, to provide comparative analysis and to define some solutions for sustainable development of entrepreneurship. A youth survey on perception of business environment in different countries was applied. The main findings of research were determined that the most important impediment for all examined countries are financial resources also was confirmed that in the case of youth from the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine the institutional-legislative, entrepreneurial and educational support factors are more important compared to young people in Latvia, and in Latvia personal factors are at least as important as institutional ones. The defined solutions in this paper can be used for sustainable development of Youth Entrepreneurship by governmental institutions, educational institutions, other pro-business NGO in different countries.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Youth Entrepreneurship, comparative analyzes, sustainable development.
JEL Code: L26, L53, O10, O19
Pages: 62-75 | Full text (PDF)
Author: Irene MALGINA
Abstract: The article examines the evolution of the development of the entrepreneurial ecosystem of the Republic of Belarus in the context of the entrepreneurship support infrastructure. The article provides a literary review of the definition of «entrepreneurship support infrastructure» and determines the relationship with the development of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. The author’s definition of «entrepreneurship support infrastructure» is proposed. The evolution of development of entrepreneurship support centers and business incubators in Belarus is analyzed, various legislative acts of the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the President of the Republic of Belarus in this area are considered. The presented study of the Republic of Belarus is based on author’s long-term analysis of the entrepreneurship support infrastructure in the country, as well as the experience of assessing the effectiveness of individual organizations. It is noted that the entrepreneurship support infrastructure has several stages of development, which reflect global trends in its development.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial ecosystem, small and medium entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship support infrastructure.
JEL Code: 010, 038
Pages: 76-91 | Full text (PDF)
Author: Nelli AMARFII-RAILEAN
Abstract: Industry 4.0, innovations and digital technologies in agricultural development are considered the main criteria meant to increase the efficiency of production activity in this branch and to propel economic development to a higher level. The researches in the area of Agriculture 4.0 alongside Industry 4.0 increasingly address digital technologies such as cloud, platform, robotics, artificial intelligence, Internet of things and blockchain to the sustainable development strategies and growth policies of many countries around the world. Sustainable development in agriculture through digitization involves the development of new management models based on information technologies to improve efficiency on farms, soil conservation and biodiversity by minimizing the negative impact on the environment, ensuring a stable level of production and profit. The present research aims to investigate the notion of blockchain technology and capitalize on this technology to streamline the management in the agricultural sector. The paper is a study of international experience and good practices of digital technologies tenders in the agri-food sector.
Keywords: Industry 4.0, blockchain technology, digital agriculture, agri-food sector, management efficiency.
JEL Code: O13
Pages: 92-107 | Full text (PDF)
Author: Liudmila LAPIȚKAIA, Alexandru LEAHOVCENCO
Abstract: This article addresses issues related to recognition, evaluation and reflection in accounting cryptocurrency in accordance with IFRS. Should be noted, that there is currently no specific IFRS standard that would disclose these issues. The article also discusses the debatable issues of recognition in the accounting of crypto-currencies. However, this article discusses the possibility of recognizing cryptocurrency as an asset and the way of application of IFRS for evaluation and recording of the cryptocurrencies. In this situation, it becomes necessary at the regulatory level to consolidate the rules for accounting for cryptocurrencies. This can be done in various ways, for example: to introduce additions to a number of International financial reporting standards, or to elaborate a separate IFRS that would disclose the features of accounting for cryptocurrencies.
Keywords: Asset, cryptocurrency, IFRS, recognition, evaluation.
JEL Code: M41
Pages: 108-116 | Full text (PDF)
Author: Elena RAILEAN, Irina VARBAN
Abstract: The article reflects the features of the formation and development of the market of psychological services in Moldova, which were identified as a result of a survey of psychologists in the country. The reasons for increasing demand and expanding supply in the market are explained. Problems and difficulties in the functioning of the market of psychological services were revealed, such as the lack of a legislative framework, price regulation, state support, and the quality of psychological services. The article highlights the ways and mechanisms for the effective development of Moldova psychological services market, the need to use regulatory mechanisms and foreign European partnership.
Keywords: psychological services market, European partnership, regulatory mechanism, supply and demand in the market of psychological counseling, client, range of psychological services, pricing, and promotion.
JEL Code: I11
Pages: 117-128 | Full text (PDF)
Author: Mariana ROBU
Abstract: The aim of this research is to contribute to the development of national policies and strategies for attracting and guiding women in STEM education programs of the Republic of Moldova. The research method is based on national data analyses, statistical trends and econometric forecasting analyses to identify the benefits of increasing the representation of women in STEM areas. The key conclusions are that the enrollment of women in research and education in area of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) will contribute to the economic development of a country. The paper presents concrete economic benefits from increasing the number of women in STEM, from creation of new employment to the economic development of the country and in particular in STEM areas.
Keywords: STEM, economic development, women implication in development
JEL Code: G38
Pages: 129-137 | Full text (PDF)