Eastern European Journal of Regional Studies
ISSN: 2537-6179 | e-ISSN: 1857-436X
Volume 7 | Issue 2 | DECEMBER 2021


From Internal to International Migration in Romania – Continuity and Spatial Differentiation

Authors: Ionel MUNTELE, Raluca-Ioana HOREA-ȘERBAN

Abstract: The study proposes a set of analyses on the evolution of the migration balance of Romania’s population over a wide time interval, fully covering the period dominated by the communist regime (1948-1989) and the last three decades marked by the transition to a market economy. The aim is to differentiate the typology of the time and space distribution of the mentioned indicator and to test a set of explanatory factors, for each of the two distinct periods. The typological and factor analyses applied led to results that largely confirm the hypothesis of a continuity between the massive internal migration during the communist regime and the more complex migration in recent decades. At the same time, the profound changes in the incidence of certain explanatory factors certify a complete restructuring of the migration system in Romania after 1990. The massive migration from rural to urban areas, brought about by positional or socio-economic factors, was gradually replaced after the fall of the communist regime by a strong labour emigration, an effect of deindustrialization. The stimulation of the periurbanization process, by changing the way of life, introduced new variables in the functioning of the migration system, in keeping with the specific evolutions of the contemporary era.

Keywords: mobility transition, territorial disparities, migratory system, changing trends, predictors, Romania.

JEL Code: O15; R23

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.01

Pages: 5- 26 | Full text (PDF)

The Impact of Migration Processes on Development


Abstract: In recent years, international migration has been growing rapidly and has reached over 272 million people or 3.5% of the world's population, and 740 million people are considered internal migrants (IOM, 2020). Migration has become a defining feature of the modern global economy and the main factors behind its expansion are the processes of globalization itself, technical progress, the new economic order, etc. Since the early 1970s, governments in some countries have seen international migration as a major tool for economic development. Migration, especially labor migration, has become a defining element of economic development for the Republic of Moldova as well. Labor migration has become an important factor in combating poverty and increasing the welfare of the population of the Republic of Moldova. Moldova's economic growth over the last 20 years is due to remittances from migrant workers. There is a very close relationship between migration and Moldova's development prospects. The analysis of the impact of migration processes on the development perspectives of the Republic of Moldova, as well as the role of public authorities in the process of integrating migration into development strategies is the subject of this article.

Keywords: international labor migration, employment, human capital, remittances, sustainable development

JEL Code: J61

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.02

Pages: 27 - 40 | Full text (PDF)

Challenges of Return Migration to the Republic of Moldova in the Context of International Migration Flow

Authors: Mihai HACHI, Stela MOROZAN, Marina POPA

Abstract: Return migration is one of the types of contemporary migration, gaining momentum in many countries of the world as a result of frequent economic, political and social conjunctural changes that have influenced migration as a phenomenon. As part of the migration process, return migration has been less studied, given the low intensity of this form of migration and the difficulty of quantifying returned migrants. The return and reintegration of returned migrants, regardless of the reason or the mode of return, is a challenge both for returnees and for the authorities of the receiving countries and requires action plans, well thought-out strategies in order to manage this process effectively and to encourage new flows of returnees. Through this study, the authors wish to analyse the phenomenon of return migration through the prism of its determining factors, to follow the effectiveness of instruments that stimulate the return migration, to analyse the experience of European countries in managing this type of migration as best practices.The use of classical and contemporary human geography research methods will allow the quantitative and qualitative assessment of return migration, the study being based on a sociological survey conducted with returnees following a migration experience.

Keywords: return migration, migratory ebb, return programs

JEL Code: J01, J11, J15

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.03

Pages: 41-58 | Full text (PDF)

Remittance trap: comparative approach of the Republic of Moldova and other ex-socialist countries


Abstract: The objective of our analysis has been to find out and elaborate on why some countries could not benefit from remittance inflows sent by migrants or even are getting into traps due to them. In the authors’ view, the remittance trap may be appraised, notably in the long run, as the dilemma in which a country finds itself when the high value of migrant remittance inflows leads to a high value of human and financial capital outflows, as well as to the moral hazard problem of the country's population and government. Accordingly, remittance trap negatively affects the sustainable growth and development of the economy which eventually deepens the country's dependence on remittances, proving the vicious nature of the trap. Furthermore, the paper focuses on identifying a competent set of policy recommendations for the countries that are remittance dependent. A natural conclusion of our research is that there is a thin line between remittances’ advantages and disadvantages, since in fact, short-term benefits very often turn out into long-run side effects, mainly as a result of mismanagement of remittance inflows, which correlates with unfavourable business climate and decreased willingness of the population to invest. Accordingly, the benefits and adverse side effects of remittance inflows are interdependent.

Keywords: migration, remittances, side effects of remittances, moral hazard problem, Dutch Disease phenomenon, ex-socialist countries, remittance trap.

JEL Code: F22, F24, F63, F66

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.04

Pages: 59-76 | Full text (PDF)

Issues on the Impact of Migration on the Labour Market and the Role of National Employment Agency in the Integration of Returned Migrants in the Republic of Moldova

Author: Raisa DOGARU

Abstract:For the Republic of Moldova, international labour migration is an important factor in overcoming imbalances both in the labour market and in the national economy. International labour migration, through its transfers, contributes to economic growth and the combating poverty. At the same time, labour migration generates certain economic and social risks related, first of all, to the aging population and the increase of the labour force deficit on the labour market. One solution to overcoming these risks would be to stimulate return migration and the integration of returned migrants into employment, an activity that is the responsibility of the National Employment Agency. The analysis of the impact of labour migration on the national economy and the labour market, as well as the role of the Employment Agency in the process of integration of returned migrants is the object of study of this article.

Keywords: labour migration, return migration, integration of returned migrants

JEL Code: J6

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.05

Pages: 77-93 | Full text (PDF)

Analysis of the Propagation Effects of Remittances on the Vulnerability of External Trade of the Republic of Moldova

Author: Mircea DIAVOR

Abstract: In the Republic of Moldova remittances have become a much-discussed subject, the country ranking among the economies with the highest share of remittances in terms of GDP. What is more, remittances, unlike FDI, external trade and other sources of income, seem to have a significant impact on economic growth. Republic of Moldova is a small open economy vulnerable to external shocks. We will examine the effect of remittances on the balance of trade by creating an econometric model. Am attempt has also been made to capture the positive and negative spillovers that migrants’ remittances have on a country’s socio-economic development.  Within the research a variety of analytical tools are employed including Granger causality tests, unit root tests, coupled with a structural vector auto regression (SVAR), impulse response function (IRF) analyses and variance decomposition. We find that net trade and remittances are closely associated and follow an almost identical path. Remittances have strong effect on the growth of negative net trade of the Republic of Moldova.

Keywords: net trade, remittances, Granger Causality Test, SVAR, variance decomposition, IRF analyses.

JEL Code: F10, F24

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.06

Pages: 94-120 | Full text (PDF)

Geographical Indications: Eastern Partnership Countries case

Author: Natalia MOGOL

Abstract: In the Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, the subject of geographical indications is particularly important. Although the approach to the subject of GIs in the EaP countries is uneven and differs from country to country, the attention that each of these states pays at the national level to the field of geographical indications cannot be neglect. In countries such as Georgia and Moldova, the development of the GI system is one of the national strategic objectives. This interest is largely due to those economic benefits offered by the implementation of the geographical indications system, especially in countries where the share of the agri-food sector in GDP is significant. Despite the fact that challenges regarding the implementation of the association agreement in the part concerning geographical indications in the EaP countries are quite similar, there are no complex studies regarding the implementation of the geographical indications systems in the Eastern Partnership Countries. The main purpose of this paper is to fulfill the existing gap and to analyze the current situation in the field of GI highlighting best practices but also the vulnerabilities of the GI system in the EaP countries.

Keywords: association agreement, eastern partnership, geographical indications, intellectual property, enforcement of geographical indications

JEL Code: O38, F15, K42

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.07

Pages: 121-141 | Full text (PDF)

Intercultural Competence - Way to Solve the Problems of Today's World


Abstract: This article highlights the need to form intercultural competence, which is closely in line with the dynamics of globalization and migration - so much publicized in recent years. Intercultural education is the study discipline included in the Romanian National Curriculum starting with 2017, which is taught in the sixth grade, this being the alternative to open communication, understanding, tolerance, interaction, solidarity and intercultural dialogue between people - regardless of ethnicity, race, religion, social condition, etc. Based on theoretical and praxiological analysis regarding the formation of the intercultural competence to the students from the gymnasium classes, three stages imposed in the finalization of the pedagogical experiment are completed: finding, training and verification. The added value of the scientific research paper is supported by teacher training activities based on the theme presented, through the elaboration and application of the Initiation Guide in Education and Intercultural Competence. Increased attention was paid to the theoretical-applied foundations that formed the basis for the elaboration and application of the Pedagogical Model for the formation of intercultural competence to the students from the gymnasium classes.

Keywords: culture, intercultural education, competence, intercultural competence.

JEL Code: I21, I 23

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.08

Pages: 142-164 | Full text (PDF)

Cross-cultural Analysis of Main Economic Partners of the Republic of Moldova

Author: Angela PIRLOG

Abstract: The paper represents a comparative study of national culture features of the main commercial partners of the Republic of Moldova and the countries preferred by Moldovan citizens to emigrate: Romania, Russia, Italy and Germany. The research focused on two cultural bipolar models: Hofstede, which comprises six cultural  dimensions: individualism vs. collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity vs. femininity, long-term vs. short-term orientation, indulgence vs. restraint, and Trompenaars-Hampden-Turner, which contains seven dimensions: universalism vs. particularism, individualism vs. communitarianism, neutral vs. emotional, specific vs. diffuse, achievement vs. ascription, sequential time vs. synchronous time, internal vs. external control. The established similarities and differences, knowledge of cultural specificity in international interactions, both social and economic, is an added value for individuals to successfully integrate and fit into a society, other than their native, and for businesses to be successfully managed on international level.

Keywords: Hofstede, Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, cultural dimensions, migration, intercultural interaction, countries

JEL Code: F22, M14, O57, Z13

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.09

Pages: 165-181 | Full text (PDF)

The Impact of Human Resource Management Policies on Business and Marketing Strategy Implementation within the Marketing Organization


Abstract: During the last three decades, significant research has been undertaken on the characteristics and relationships of the marketing organization with the implementation of strategies. These are the structure, culture, processes, and influence and leadership characteristics of the marketing institution. However, there has been little attention given to the human resources management policies of the marketing staff. These policies are one of the strongest sensations of people and organizations, when properly implemented, to conduct themselves correctly. In this study, we show that mid-level marketer implementation of HR policies differ substantially in the type of marketing strategy adopted by the companies. Companies with aligned enterprise and marketing strategies have achieved considerably stronger performance than companies with unequalled business and marketing strategies.

Keywords: Marketing strategy, management of resources, implementation of marketing strategies, types of strategy, performance

JEL Code: M10

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.10

Pages: 182-207 | Full text (PDF)

Democracy, Governance and Economy: How EaP States Have Evolved in the Last Decade?

Authors: Ramona ŢIGĂNAŞU, Anatolie CĂRBUNE

Abstract: In the last decade, several transformations have occurred at the level of governance systems within the six states included in the Eastern Partnership (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine), in order to respond to multiple challenges, either endogenous, or exogenous. Against this background, the question that arises is whether this reconfiguration of the systems meant positive effects or, on the contrary, on certain directions, an involution can be highlighted. Thus, our methodological approach takes into account a multidimensional perspective related to democracy, governance and socio-economic aspects, which emphasize whether progress has been made in 2020, compared to 2010, in terms of the mentioned components. The research results underline if the measures implemented by these countries were in accordance with the pro-market and pro-democracy principles, based on good governance. In addition, the identification of some vulnerabilities might allow the outlining of policy recommendations, for an increased adaptability of these economies to future crises.

Keywords: democracy, governance, economy, Eastern Partnership countries, dynamics

JEL Code: E02, O20, O47

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53486/2537-6179.7-2.11

Pages: 208-233 | Full text (PDF)